Caffeine is one of the most consumed psychoactive ingredients in the world. About 1.6 billion cups of coffee are consumed every day. Do the activities that we carry out daily, such as reading, can be influenced by caffeine consumption? Perceptually, caffeine seems to improve the overall perception of a visual scene. The global perception - controlled mainly by the attentional circuits of the right hemisphere - is causally connected to reading skills. In fact, global perception skills already in kindergarten predict the development of future reading skills in later years. Furthermore, in people with reading difficulties, behavioral training that improves global perception skills also improves reading skills. while at the linguistic level, caffeine consumption appears to improve performance in semantic reasoning activities. These are the premises for the article 'Caffeine improves text reading and global perception' published in the prestigious Journal of Psychopharmacology 'and produced by researchers from the Universities of Padua, Florence and Bergamo. "For these reasons we hypothesized that caffeine intake - facilitating global perception and semantic reasoning - could also improve performance in specific reading tasks - explains Sandro Franceschini, Department of General Psychology of the University of Padua and first author of the research - In this article we present the results of two double-blind studies involving 78 people We show that in those who daily consume low or normal amounts of caffeine, a single dose of 200 mg of this substance (about two coffees expressed) it speeds up the speed of reading the text. The improvement of the speed observed in reading the text was not generalized to tasks of reading lists of single words or words without meaning ". As Sara Bertoni, Department of General Psychology of the University of Padua and co-author adds, "it is important to emphasize that improvements in reading skills were accompanied by a change in the global perception of visual stimuli, without any effect on the alert functions being detected , on the skills of orientation of attention, on executive or phonological functions, demonstrating the presence of a specific connection between the rapidity in reading the text and the attentional mechanisms of the right hemisphere, involved in the execution of semantic tasks and in the global visual perception " . "Furthermore - says Matteo Lulli, Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences '' Mario Serio '' of the University of Florence and co-author, - in this study we demonstrate the paradoxical importance of a small sleep deprivation to obtain greater beneficial effects of caffeine. With a two-hour sleep deprivation, drinking two coffees leads to reading this press release saving about six seconds. " These results could have great implications for a better understanding of reading disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a global perception deficit.
The coffee-machine and coffee-vending sector will see (by 2022) an increase of + 6.4% and that of ice cream and pastry by + 3.9%. Among the areas with the greatest growth there are also China, Russia and the Gulf countries. This is what emerges from some Export Planning data on numbers of the Ulisse Information System that photograph the situation in 2018. China, Germany and Italy are the most present countries in the first three positions. On coffee machines Germany and Italy are equal and stand at 2.7 billion and 2.6 billion respectively, in a market that globally is worth 17 billion euros and which could grow by 6.4% from here to 2022. In the last decade (2009-2018), the trade in coffee machines for vending registered an average annual growth of 8%.
The taste of coffee can have different shades: caramel (with the taste of candies or in syrup, it depends on the sugar component in the coffee), chocolate (shades that recall chocolate in its various variants), flowery (mainly the aroma of gelosmino or any of the fresh flowers), fruity (taste of ripe fresh fruit, such as peach, apricot, citrus, tropical fruits, figs, dates), malt (toasted cereals), hazelnut (hazelnuts and toasted almonds), spicy (cinnamon, cloves). Coffee can also be rich (with a complete taste) or round (with balanced characteristics and not peaks of one taste rather than another).